The Male Role Norms Inventory (MRNI)
and Related Instruments

Please note that a downloadable permission form to use the MRNI-SF or any other instrument is available on this website, and that reprints of refereed journal articles listed below may be requested. Please use the message form on this site for your reprint requests.


DO YOU THINK MEN SHOULD BE MACHO, OR DO YOU LEAN MORE TO THE METROSEXUAL?

Find out where you stand. Take the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF) and get interpretations of your scores by clicking HERE.


NEW INSTRUMENT:

Male Role Norms Inventory-Very Brief (MRNI-VB)

McDermott, R. C., Levant, R. F., & Hammer, J. (2018). Development and validation of a 5-Item Male Role Norms Inventory using bifactor modeling. Psychology of Men and Masculinities, Advance Online Publication, October 8, 2018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/men0000178

ABSTRACT: 

Measures of traditional masculinity ideology (TMI) provide important information related to men’s health and wellbeing. However, most TMI measures are too long to be included in large public health, psychological, or medical survey batteries. Drawing on previous bifactor analyses of the Male Role Norms Inventory (MRNI-SF), structural equation modeling (SEM) identified five items with variance primarily explained by a TMI general factor. These items formed the Male Role Norms Inventory-Very Brief form (MRNI-VB), a unidimensional measure of the same TMI general factor captured by the MRNI-SF bifactor model. Several analyses were completed determining that the MRNI-VB performed as well as the original MRNI-SF. First, the unidimensional MRNI-VB evidenced equivalent fit to the bifactor MRNI-SF model in an archival sample of college and community men and women (n = 6744). Second, the MRNI-VB yielded statistically similar standardized beta coefficients to the MRNI-SF TMI general factor across 32 out of 38 unique regressions predicting variables within and outside of the MRNI nomological network in published (n = 484) and unpublished (n = 1537) MRNI-SF research of college and community men. Third, in an unpublished sample of undergraduates who filled out the MRNI-VB instead of the entire MRNI-SF (n = 365), the MRNI-VB yielded good model fit, good internal consistency reliability, and demonstrated a similar pattern of measurement invariance between men and women as the MRNI-SF. Overall, findings suggest that the MRNI-VB captures the same general TMI factor as the MRNI-SF but with a fraction of the items. Future directions, limitations, and implications are discussed.

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Male Role Norms Inventory (MRNI)

Articles:

Levant, R., Hirsch, L., Celentano, E., Cozza, T., Hill, S., MacEachern, M., Marty, N., & Schnedeker, J. (1992). The male role: An investigation of contemporary norms. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 14, 325-337.

Levant, R., Wu., R., & Fischer, J. (1996). Masculinity ideology: A comparison between U. S. and Chinese young men and women. Journal of Gender, Culture and Health, 1, 207-220.

Levant, R., & Majors, R. (1997). An investigation into variations in the construction of the male gender role among young African-American and European-American women and men. Journal of Gender, Culture and Health, 2, 33-43.

Levant, R., Majors, R., & Kelley, M. (1998). Masculinity ideology among young African-American and European-American women and men in different regions of the United States. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 4, 227-236.

Wu, R., Levant, R. F., Sellers, A. (2001) The influence of sex and social development on masculinity ideology of Chinese undergraduate students. Psychological Science (published by the Chinese Psychological Society), 24, 365-366.

Levant, R. F., Cuthbert, A. C., Richmond, K., Sellers, A., Matveev, A., Matina, O., Soklovsky, M. (2003). Masculinity ideology among Russian and U.S. young men and women and its relationship to unhealthy lifestyle habits among young Russian men. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 4, 26-36.

Levant, R.F., Richmond, K, Majors, R. G., Inclan, J. E., Rosello, J. M., Rowan, G., & Sellers, A. (2003). A multicultural investigation of masculinity ideology and alexithymia. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 4, 91-99.

Berger, J.M., Levant, R.F., McMillan, K.K., Kelleher, W., & Sellers, A. (2005). Impact of gender role conflict, traditional masculinity ideology, alexithymia, and age on men’s attitudes toward psychological help seeking. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 6, 73-78.

Levant, R. F., & Richmond., K. (2007). A review of research on masculinity ideologies using the Male Role Norms Inventory. Journal of Men’s Studies, 15, 130-146.

Gerdes, Z. T., Alto, K. M., Jadaszewski, S., D’Auria, F., & Levant, R. F. (2017). A content analysis of research on masculinity ideologies using all forms of the Male Role Norms Inventory (MRNI). Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 19, 584-599.

 

Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised (MRNI-R)

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Articles:

Levant, R. F., & Richmond., K. (2007). A review of research on masculinity ideologies using the Male Role Norms Inventory. Journal of Men’s Studies, 15, 130-146.

Levant, R. F., Smalley, K. B., Aupont, M., House, A., Richmond, K., &. Noronha, D. (2007). Initial validation of the Male Role Norms Inventory- Revised. Journal of Men’s Studies, 15, 85-100.

Levant, R. F., Rankin, T. J., Williams, C., Hasan, N. T., Smalley, K. B. (2010) Evaluation of the factor structure and construct validity of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised (MRNI-R). Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 11, 25-37.

Wimer, D. J. & Levant, R. F. (2011). The relationship of masculinity and help-seeking style with the academic help-seeking behavior of college men. Journal of Men’s Studies, 19, 256-274.

Thomas, K . & Levant, R F. (2011). Does the endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology moderate the relationship between exposure to violent video games and aggression Journal of Men’s Studies, 20, 47-56.

 

Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF)

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Levant, R. F., Hall, R. J., & Rankin. T. J. (2013). Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form

(MRNI-SF): Development, confirmatory factor analytic investigation of structure, and measurement invariance across gender. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 228-238.

Levant, R. F., Hall, R. J., Weigold, I., & McCurdy, E. R. (2015). Construct distinctiveness and variance composition of multi-dimensional instruments: Three short-form masculinity Measures. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62, 488-502.

Levant, R. F., Hall, R. J., Weigold, I., & McCurdy, E. R. (2016). Construct validity evidence for the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form: A structural equation modeling approach using the bifactor model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63, 534-542.

Levant, R. F., McCurdy, E. R. (2017). Toward diversifying research participants: Measurement invariance of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF) across recruitment method. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 19, 531-539.

McDermott, R. C., Levant, R. F., Hammer, J., Hall, R., McKelvey, D., & Jones, Z. (2017). Further examination of the factor structure of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF): Measurement considerations for women, men of color, and gay men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64, 724-738.

 

Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent (MRNI-A and MRNI-A-r)

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Articles:

Levant, R. F., Graef, S. T., Smalley, K. B., Williams, C., & McMillan, N. (2008). The evaluation of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent (MRNI-A). Thymos: Journal of Boyhood Studies, 2, 46-59

Shepard, S. J., Nicpon, M. F, Haley, J. T., Lind, M., & Liu, W. M.(2011). Masculine norms, school attitudes, and psychosocial adjustment among gifted boys. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 12, 181-187.

Levant, R. F., Rogers, B. K., Cruickshank, B., Kurtz, B. A., Rankin, T. J., Williams, C. M., Colbow, A, (2012). Exploratory factor analysis and construct validity of the Male Role Norms InventoryAdolescent-revised (MRNI-A-r). Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 13, 354-366.

Levant, R. F., McDermott, R., Hewitt, A., Alto, K., & Harris, K. (2016). Confirmatory factor analytic investigation of variance composition, gender invariance, and validity of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent-revised (MRNI-A-r). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63, 543-556.

Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-30

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Article:

Levant, R. F., McDermott, R. C., Parent, M. C., Alshabani, N., Mahalik, J. R., & Hammer, J (2019). Development and evaluation of a new short form of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI-30). Journal of Counseling Psychology. in press.

Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS) and Short Form (FIS-SF)

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Articles:

Levant, R. F., Richmond, K., Cook, S, House, A., & Aupont, M. (2007). The Femininity Ideology Scale: Factor structure, reliability, validity, and social contextual variation. Sex Roles, 57, 373-383.

Richmond, K., Levant, R. F., Cook, S., & Smalley, K. B. (2015) Confirmatory factor analysis of the Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS), and its relationship to anxiety and feminine gender role stress. Women and Health, 55, 263-279.

Levant, R. F., Alto, K. M., McKelvey, D. K., Richmond, K., & McDermott, R. C. (2017). Variance composition, measurement invariance by gender, and validity of the Femininity Ideology Scale-Short Form. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64, 708-723.

Health Behavior Inventory-20 (HBI-20) and Short Form (HBI-SF)

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Articles:

Levant, R. F., Wimer, D.J, Williams, C. M. (2011). An evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Health Behavior Inventory-20 (HBI-20) and its relationships to masculinity and attitudes towards seeking psychological help among college men. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 11, 26-41.

Levant, R. F. & Wimer, D. J. (2014). Masculinity constructs as protective buffers and risk factors for men’s health. American Journal of Men’s Health,110-120.

Levant, R. F. & Wimer, D. J. (2014). The relationship between conformity to masculine norms and men’s health behaviors: Testing a multiple mediator model. International Journal of Men’s Health, 8, 110-120.

Levant, R. F., Alto, K. M., McKelvey, D., Pardo, S., Jadaszewski, S., Richmond, K., Keo-Meier, C., & Gerdes, Z. (2019, April 25). Development, Variance Composition, Measurement Invariance across Five Gender Identity Groups, and Validity of the Health Behavior Inventory–Short Form. Psychology of Men & Masculinities. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/men0000215

Women’s Non-traditional Sexuality Questionnaire (WNSQ)

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Article:

Levant, R. F., Rankin, T. J., Hall, R. J., Smalley, K. B., David, K., Williams, C. (2011). The measurement of nontraditional sexuality in women. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 41,283-295. doi:10.1007/s10508-011-9793-6

Father’s Expectations About Son’s Masculinity (FEASMS)

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Article:

Levant, R., Gerdes, Z. T., Alto, K., Jadaszewski, S. & McDermott, R. (2018). Development and evaluation of the Fathers’ Expectations about Sons’ Masculinity Scale (Short Form). Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 19, 325-339.

The Aging Adults Masculinity Ideology Inventory (AAMII)

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Article:

Levant, R. F., Webster, B. M., Stanley, J. T. & Thompson, E. (2019, March 7). The Aging Adults Masculinity Ideologies Inventory (AAMII): Dimensionality, variance composition, measurement invariance by gender, and validity. Psychology of Men and Masculinities, Advance Online Publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/men0000208

Articles on Men’s Help-Seeking and Mental and Physical Health

Levant, R. F., Cuthbert, A. C., Richmond, K., Sellers, A., Matveev, A., Matina, O., Soklovsky, M. (2003). Masculinity ideology among Russian and U.S. young men and women and its relationship to unhealthy lifestyle habits among young Russian men. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 4, 26-36.

Berger, J.M., Levant, R.F., McMillan, K.K., Kelleher, W., & Sellers, A. (2005). Impact of gender role conflict, traditional masculinity ideology, alexithymia, and age on men’s attitudes toward psychological help seeking. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 6, 73-78.

Levant, R. F., Wimer, D. J., Williams, C., Smalley, K. B., & Noronha, D. (2009). The Relationships between Masculinity Variables, Health Risk Behaviors and Attitudes toward Seeking Psychological Help. International Journal of Men’s Health, 8, 3-21.

Levant, R. F., Wimer, D.J, Williams, C. M. (2011). An evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Health Behavior Inventory-20 (HBI-20) and its relationships to masculinity and attitudes towards seeking psychological help among college men. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 11, 26-41.

Levant, R. F. & Wimer, D. J. (2014). Masculinity constructs as protective buffers and risk factors for men’s health. American Journal of Men’s Health, 8, 110-120.

Levant, R. F. & Wimer, D. J. (2014). The relationship between conformity to masculine norms and men’s health behaviors: Testing a multiple mediator model. International Journal of Men’s Health, 13, 22-41.

Wimer, D. J., & Levant, R. F. (2013). Energy drink use and its relationship to masculinity constructs among college men. American Journal of Men’s Health, 7, 317-328.

Levant, R. F., Stefanov, D.G., Rankin, T. J., Halter, M. J., Williams, C. M., & Mellinger, C. (2013). Moderated path analysis of the relationships between masculinity and men’s attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 392-400.

Levant, R. F., Parent, M. C., McCurdy, E. R, & Bradstreet, T. C. (2014). Moderated Mediation and Health Outcomes of the Relationships between Masculinity Ideology, Outcome Expectations, and Energy Drink Use. (submitted to refereed journal).

Levant, R. F. & Wimer, D. J. (2014). Masculinity constructs as protective buffers and risk factors for men’s health. American Journal of Men’s Health, 8, 110-120.

Levant, R. F., Parent, M. C., McCurdy, E. R, & Bradstreet, T. C. (2015). Moderated mediation and health outcomes of the relationships between masculinity ideology, outcome expectations, and energy drink use. Health Psychology, 34, 110-1106.

Gerdes, Z., & Levant, R. (2018). Complex relationships among masculine norms and health/well-being Outcomes: Correlation patterns of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory subscales. American Journal of Men’s Health, 12, 229-240.

Levant, R.F, Jadaszewski, S., Alto, K., Richmond. K., Pardo, S., Keo-Meier, C., & Gerdes, Z. T. (2019). Moderation and mediation of the relationships between masculinity ideology and health status. Health Psychology, 38, 162-171